In Ukraine the situation was even more complex, with an ongoing conflict between Nestor Makhno's anarchists, communists, the White Movement, various governments of Ukraine and the reborn Polish Army. The 600 troops of 1st Estonian Rifle Regiment of the Red Army together with Leonhard Ritt, commander of the 1st Estonian Rifle Division switched side on the same day. In Belarus, the Belarusian People's Republic was conquered and the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia proclaimed. After signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Bolshevik Russia lost the European lands it annexed in the 18th and 19th centuries. und der russischen Armee unter Kommando von Charles de Croÿ ausgetragen und endete mit einem Sieg der Schweden wodurch die Belagerung Narvas aufgehoben wurde. A subsequent broadcast by the Russians on 21 July led to the British journalist Arthur Ransome sounding out the Commissar for Foreign Relations Georgy Chicherin on the subject of peace talks. Die Schlacht von Narva im Großen Nordischen Krieg wurde am 19.jul./ 20.schwed./ 30. Neiberg, M.S., and Jordan, D., "The Eastern Front 1914-1920", This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 00:45. In November and December the German army started a retreat westwards. Enter your message* POST COMMENT. The so-called 'Estonian' Red Army captured Alūksne, Setomaa, Vastseliina, and Räpina parishes by 15 March. The Gdov and Yamburg Detachments of the 7th Red Army attacked the German Infanterie-Regiment Nr. He recruited 600 officers and 11,000 volunteers by 23 December 1918. [citation needed], The Estonian and Polish armies proved to be far more capable opponents than the Red Army had assumed. This advance was soon stopped by a Soviet buildup ostensibly for a new expansionist offensive into Estonia. Estonia had become the first country to repel the Soviet westward offensive.[14]. Shortly afterwards, General Nikolai N. Yudenich took command of the troops. On 31 May, an Estonian cavalry regiment led by Gustav Jonson reached Gulbene, capturing large amount of rolling stock, including 2 armoured trains. Within 11 days, the 1st Division had advanced 200 km.[12]. The war started in Narva on 28 November 1918; on the next day the city was captured by the Red Army. The Bolsheviks were also implementing a new strategy, "Revolution from abroad" (Revolutsiya izvne—literally, "revolution from the outside"), based on an assumption that revolutionary masses desire revolution but are unable to carry it out without help from more organized and advanced Bolsheviks. The Battle of Narva took place from February 2, 1944 - August 10, 1944. [6] The Soviet offensive came to a halt by late February and it became apparent that the Red Army would not break through the Polish lines by half-hearted attacks. This included its lovely Baroque Old Town, which was levelled in March 1944 by Soviet planes. The town was defended by men of the Estonian Defence League (Home Guard) (consisting partly of secondary school students) and Infanterie-Regiment Nr. Category:Battle of Narva (1700) From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. The Soviet breakthrough in Belorussia made the German Army Group North withdraw a large portion of their troops from Narva to the central part of the Eastern Front and to Finland. Leave a comment using your email This e-mail address is not valid. [46] Finland provided 5000 rifles and 20 field guns by 12 December. On 25 April 1919, Hungarian Communists offered to mediate a settlement between the Bolsheviks and the Estonians, but Admiral Cowan threatened withdrawal of support to the Estonians unless they rejected the Hungarian offer. However, to circumvent Entente's orders, the troops of the disbanded VI Reserve Corps, instead of leaving, were incorporated into the West Russian Volunteer Army, officially hired by the German puppet Government of Latvia and led by Pavel Bermondt-Avalov. The campaign was the struggle of Estonia for its sovereignty in the aftermath of World War I. [32] The following day, the Baltische Landeswehr captured Cēsis. November 1700greg. In November that year, the Swedish triumphed over the Russians in their first major engagement of the Great Northern War at Narva, Estonia. The first clashes demonstrated that the VI Reserve Corps was stronger and better equipped than the Soviets. The Battle of Narva on 19 November 1700 (30 November, N.S.) Internal power struggles prevented any of the governments in Belarus from gaining lasting power. The Estonian army also remained to support the defence of Latvia against Soviets by defending the front north of Lake Lubāns. The best known comprehensive historical analysis of the campaign against Poland was performed by Norman Davies in his book White Eagle, Red Star (1972). This first period of independence was extremely short-lived, as the German troops entered Tallinn the following day. The famous battle of Tannenberg (1914) which saved Eastprussia.Taken from this documentary series: [39] The British contributed 88 ships to the Baltic campaign, of which 16 were sunk. [35], In the autumn, the Northwestern Army launched operation White Sword, a major effort to capture Petrograd. The 2nd Division continued to advance southwards facing increasing Soviet resistance. The video says 1943 but that's wrong. The offensive in the Vistula River direction by the newly created Western Army had the aim of establishing similar Soviet governments in Belarus, Ukraine and Poland and to drive as far west as possible in order to join up with the German Revolution and to ignite the World revolution. The newly formed Estonian Red Army gained the Setomaa, Vastseliina and Räpina Parishes by 15 March. Heavy fighting continued at the southeastern front up to the first half of May. [30][31] Ulmanis took refuge aboard the steamship "Saratow" under Entente protection. [33], Soviet Russia had been attempting to conclude a peace since the spring of 1919. On 27 March, the Estonian 3rd Division was deployed along the western flank of the southern front under the command of Major-General Ernst Põdder. By May 1919, there were 6,000 Russians, 4,000 Latvians and 700 Ingrians in their respective national units. The German forces were ordered to leave Latvia, the Baltische Landeswehr was put under the command of the Latvian Provisional Government and sent to fight against the Red Army. The agreed frontier corresponded roughly with the position of the front line at the cessation of hostilities. In particular, Estonia retained a strategic strip to the east of the Narva river (Narvataguse) and Setumaa in the southeast, areas which were lost in early 1945 – shortly after Soviet troops had taken control of Estonia, when Moscow transferred the land East of the Narva River and most of Petseri County to the RSFSR. By the end of the year, the 7th Red Army controlled Estonia along the front line 34 kilometers east of Tallinn, west from Tartu and south of Ainaži.[3]. Hence, as Leon Trotsky remarked, the revolution should be "brought on the bayonets" (of the Red Army), as "through Kiev leads the straight route for uniting with the Austro-Hungarian revolution, just as through Pskov and Vilnius goes the way for uniting with the German revolution. On 28 November 1918, the 6th Red Rifle Division struck the border town of Narva, which marked the beginning of the Estonian War of Independence. In the resulting fighting near Narva, the Swedes routed the enemy. Intensive German attacks on Estonian positions continued up to 22 June, without achieving a breakthrough. [13] The Red Army heavily bombarded Narva, leaving about 2,000 people homeless yet ultimately failed to capture the city. This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:Battle of Narva (1944)Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Battle of Narva ‧ WW-II ‧ 1944 : 02-feb~aug-10 T-34 Tank & War Memorials. At the same time Polish and Belarusian self-defence units sprung up across western Belarus. A few months later, using the interval between the Red Army's retreat and the arrival of the Imperial German Army, the Salvation Committee of the Estonian National Council Maapäev issued the Estonian Declaration of Independence in Tallinn on 24 February 1918[9] and formed the Estonian Provisional Government. Narva became part of an independent Estonia in 1918, at the end of World War I. By end of May they had captured Alūksne and Valmiera. The majority of Soviet forces were concentrated at and along the southern front. On 28 November 1918, the 6th Red Rifle Division struck the border town of Narva, which marked the beginning of the Estonian War of Independence. A Royal Navy squadron continued to provide artillery support on the coast and also protected the Estonian flank against the Rus… The 49th Red Latvian Rifle Regiment took the Valga railway junction on 18 December and the city of Tartu on Christmas Eve. Previously, Charles XII had forced Denmark–Norway to sign the Treaty of Travendal. Offensive on all fronts! In the southern sphere-of-conflict, Tartu was liberated through the rapid deployment of armored trains and the Tartumaa Partisan Battalion. The squadron captured two Russian destroyers, Spartak and Avtroil, and turned them over to Estonia, which renamed them Vambola and Lennuk. The Soviet 8th Army started attacking the Auvere Station on July 20 with artillery fire. The real intent of the VI Reserve Corps was to annex Estonia into a German-dominated puppet state. The campaign was fought on the Eastern Front during World War II. After the German Revolution with the capitulation of Imperial Germany, between the 11 and 14 November 1918, the representatives of Germany formally handed over political power to the Estonian Provisional Government. [7] After repeated attacks, the 7th Red Army managed to achieve some limited success. Battle of Narva (1918), between Estonia and Soviet Russia, starting event of Estonian War of Independence Battle of Narva (1919) could mean 3 different clashes: between Estonian-Finnish forces and Soviet Russia on 18 - 19 January [22] The offensive was supported along the Gulf of Finland's coast by the British and Estonian navy and marines. Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian and even Cossack national governments were formed. On 25 April, the Latvian Riflemen captured Rūjiena, but were soon pushed back by the 3rd Division to Salacgrīva-Seda-Gauja line. [11] The strengthened Estonian Army stopped the 7th Red Army's advance in its tracks between 2 and 5 January 1919 and went on the counter-offensive on 7 January. Due simultaneous German-Latvian offensive in Western-Latvia situation was becoming very difficult for the Soviets. Davies mentioned the codename for this offensive: "Target Vistula"; however, it is not commonly used in historiography. In the Battle of Paju, the Tartumaa Partisan Battalion and the Finnish volunteers drove the Latvian Riflemen out of Valga on 31 January. The White Russian Northern Corps had been organizing in Estonia since December 1918. The United Kingdom remained Estonia's main supplier of arms and equipment during the war. The company took part in battles against Bolsheviks in Latvia and near Pskov and 19 men were killed by the time their contract ended in September. The terms of the treaty stated that Russia renounced in perpetuity all rights to the territory of Estonia. With the arms provided by Britain and France, and the operational support by the Estonian Army, Estonian Navy, and Royal Navy, the Northwestern Army began the offensive on 28 September 1919. The lengthy German defence during the Battle of Narva denied the Soviets the use of Estonia as a favorable base for amphibious invasions and air attacks against Helsinki and other Finnish cities. On 3 July, when the Estonian forces were at the outskirts of Riga, a ceasefire was made on the demand of the Entente and the Ulmanis government was restored in Riga. As a result, the Soviet government made a formal offer for negotiations on 31 August 1919. At that time, the 3rd Estonian Division, including the 2nd Latvian Cēsis regiment under Colonel Krišjānis Berķis, had 5990 infantry and 125 cavalry. The campaign eventually bogged down and led to the Estonian Pskov Offensive, the White Russian Petrograd Offensives, the Lithuanian–Soviet War, the Latvian War of Independence, continuation of the Ukrainian–Soviet War and the start of the Polish-Soviet War. In positions along the Narva River the Estonian 1st Division and their allied White Russian Northern Corps repelled the 7th Red Army's attacks.